PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA (WHO GRADE I)
In general, treatment is limited to surgical removal, which, if completely performed, can lead to total recovery in 95% of all cases.
LOW-GRADE EPENDYMOMA (WHO GRADE II)
Also in this case, surgical operation in most cases makes it possible to remove entirely the lesion with consequent full recovery.
When this should not be possible because the tumor has violated important adjacent structures, radiotherapy is employed in case of relapse.
LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS (WHO GRADE II)
Treatment is micro-surgical excision. It is important that the removal of the tumor be as wide as possible while still preserving the integrity of the surrounding areas of the brain.
Although they are slow-growing tumors, low-grade gliomas tend to recur even after surgical removal. Therefore, several brain MRIs over a period of time shall be necessary to reveal any relapse as early as possible.
In some cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are useful.
The prognosis for low-grade gliomas, in view of a complete treatment, is of about 7-10 years.
ANAPLASTIC GLIOMAS (WHO GRADE III)
Treatment is microsurgical. Also in this case, it is important perform an excision of the tumor as wide as possible, while still preserving the integrity of the surrounding areas of the brain.
Whenever it is not possible to remove the lesion due to the critical location of the tumor or due to the patient’s clinical condition, it is advisable to perform a biopsy of the tumor tissue in order to make a histological diagnosis and, if necessary, carry out the adjuvant therapies.
Surgery may be followed by chemotherapy, which has proven to be particularly effective in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.
Anaplastic gliomas are very aggressive tumors and the prognosis, after appropriate treatment, is of about 3 years.
GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME (WHO GRADE IV)
The glioblastoma multiforme requires an aggressive multidisciplinary treatment.
Treatment is microsurgical excision. Also in this case, it is important to perform a wide excision of the tumor while still preserving the integrity of the surrounding areas of the brain.
Following surgery, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolamide) should be applied.
The average time for the appearance of a recurrence is about 5-6 months. When the lesion recurs in a location that is surgically accessible, a second surgical operation may be performed.
The prognosis is unfavourable, with an average survival, after appropriate treatment, of about 16 months.