The first treatment in case of spinal instability is a conservative one, pharmacological therapy (painkillers, muscle relaxants, neurotrophic drugs) and rehabilitation (through repeated cycles of physiotherapy, stretching, and muscular reinforcement).
Should the conservative attempt be unsuccessful, surgery may be considered.
The surgery consists in vertebral stabilization by means of peduncle screws, which are inserted into the vertebral body, the heads of the peduncle screws are connected to each other by titanium bars and, if necessary, by positioning a spacer (cage) in the disc space. When there are radicular symptoms, it is also recommended to perform a decompression of the vertebral canal (laminectomy).
These are very safe procedures performed under general anesthesia with the aid of radioscopic controls and intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) that confirm the correct position of the fixation devices to the neurosurgeon while maintaining the integrity of the nerve structures.
On the first day after surgery, the patient is invited to stand up and she/he is dismissed from the hospital after three days. The patient can immediately resume her/his normal activity without major strains for about 2 months. After fifteen days from the surgery, it is crucial that the patient undertake an intensive physiotherapy program (massotherapy and postural re-education) in order to achieve a satisfactory post-operative result.
After 3 months, the patient may resume sports activities.